Welcome to Puducherry (Pondicherry)
Monday, December 11, 2017 07:21 AM
History

Pondicherry was a part of the Pallava kingdom of Kanchipuram in the fourth century AD. During the next few centuries Pondicherry was continued to be under the control of several dynasties of the south. In the tenth century A.D. the Cholas of Thanjavur ruled the region for over 300 years but later on it was replaced by the Pandya Kingdom. Till 1638, Pondicherry came under various rulers like the Muslim rulers of the North; the Vijayanagar Empire and then the Sultan of Bijapur came to rule over Gingee.

The 17th century marked the beginning of colonial era in India. The French East India Company set up its trading centre at Pondicherry in 1673. This outpost eventually became the chief French settlement in India. Dutch and British trading companies also wanted trade with India. Wars raged between these European countries and spilled over into the Indian subcontinent. The Dutch captured Pondicherry in 1693 but returned it to France by the Treaty of Ryswick in 1699.

The French acquired Mahe in the 1720s, Yanam in 1731, and Karaikal in 1738. Francois Martin was the virtual builder of Pondicherry towns during span of 33 years of his administration here. In 1740, Pondicherry provided asylum to the royal refugees of the ruler of the Karnatic when marattas invaded him. Consequently, the Marattas attacked the French for this gesture but was defeated. In gratification of the gesture, the survivors of the Karnatic dynasty gifted Ariankuppam, Theduvanatham, and Villianur to the French.

The Anglo-French wars (1742-1763), Pondicherry changed hands
frequently. On January 16, 1761, the British captured Puducherry from the French, but the Treaty of Paris (1763) returned the city to the French.It was taken again by the British in 1793 amid the Wars of the French Revolution, but once again returned to France in 1814. When the British gained control of the whole India in the late 1850s, they allowed the French to retain their settlements in the country.

India gained independence in 1947, an agreement between France and India in 1948 agreed to an election in France's Indian possessions to choose their political future. 31.10.1954 for the last time at 6 o'clock, as the sun set, the French flag was lifted off the mast of the pavilion. On 1st November 1954, Pondicherry was transferred to India. A treaty of Cessation together with Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam was signed on May 28, 1956. It became a Union Territory to be administered by the President of India in 1962 under the 14th Amendment of the Indian Constitution.

Once a French colony, Pondicherry still today has a few French families living there and French is an important language. The French spirit can be observed in the very layout of the township streets and buildings. Festivals of Pondicherry differ from the rest of India, for the French influence still persists prominently here.

Masquerade, held in March - April, is a popular mask festival, during which brilliantly costumed and masked people of Pondicherry, dance down the streets to the music of trumpets and accordions. During the Eve of The Bastille Day, retired soldiers parade the streets in war finery, singing the French and Indian National Anthem. French is still widely spoken, and the seaside villas and the cobbled streets are more reminiscent of the south of France than the south of India!!

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